تاریخ ادبیات شیراز
دوشنبه 23 آذر 1394 :: نویسنده : یگانه اکبرزاده

زندگی نامه بابا کوهی

ابن باكویه در حدود سال 330 هجری در شیراز به دنیا آمد و در جوانی به كسب علوم پرداخت و از محضر بزرگان و مشایخ زمان استفاده ها كرد و همین كه قلبش از انوار الهی روشن شد و مجذوب عوامل عرفانی گردید به سیر آفاق و انفس پرداخت و اغلب مشایخ نامی آن روزگار را ملاقات كرد و هنگامی كه شیخ ابوسعید ابوالخیر عارف مشهور به نیشابور رفت ابن باكویه به جای شیخ عبدالرحمن سلمی در خانقاه معروف آن شهر به ارشاد مشغول بود، بین او و شیخ ابوسعید مباحثات مختلف عرفانی درگرفت و ابوسعید به سؤالات وی جواب های شایسته داد. همچنین در نهاوند میان ابن باكویه و شیخ ابوالعباس جانشین شیخ كبیر ابوعبدالله خفیف شیرازی عارف نامدار در باب تصوف و طریقت مناقشات زیاد روی داد و آن شیخ به وفور فضل و كمال و وسعت اطلاعات ابن باكویه اعراف كرده است.
جامی شاعر بزرگ قرن نهم در كتاب نفحات الانس می نویسد، خواجه عبدالله انصاری از ابن باكویه چندین بار به تجلیل یاد كرده و به انتخاب خود 30 هزار حدیث و 30 هزار حكایت از او نقل كرده است و مخصوصاً بارها گفته كه ابن باكویه ملك بوده است و از همه علوم با نصیب و حتی او را بزرگترین شیخ عصر خود دانسته و از این كه نسبت به خواجه بیش از دیگران توجه داشته تفاخر كرده است.
باری عبدالله باكویه پس از سال ها مسافرت و جهانگردی دوباره به شیراز برگشت و چند سالی را دور از مردم و هیاهوی شهر در غار كوه شمالی شیراز كه آن را صبوی می گفتند عزلت گزید و به عبادت پرداخت و در سال 442 پس از عمری دراز به عالم دیگر شتافت و مریدان آن پیر مراد را در خانقاهش كه امروز آرامگاه اوست دفن كردند.
ابن باكویه شاعر نبوده و هرگز شعری نگفته و دیوانی كه به او نسبت داده اند متعلق به صوفی دیگری است كه ظاهراً در قرن نهم و دهم هجری می زیسته و گاهی كوهی و زمانی انسان تخلص می كرده و نباید او را به ابن باكویه كه از مشایخ بزرگ قرن پنجم بوده است اشتباه كرد زیرا علاوه بر این كه اشعار دیوان باباكوهی از حیث سبك و انشاء مناسب با آثار شاعران قرن نهم ودهم است بعضی مضامین و حتی پاره ای از غزلیات حافظ را اقتباس و استقبال كرده است.
شاید این كوهی شاعر روزگاری بر سر مزار ابن باكویه به عزلت و گوشه نشینی پرداخته و در همانجا مرده و مدفون شده و دیوانش هم به عنوان دیوان باباكوهی منتشر گردیده است. مطابق استقصای مرحوم علامه قزوینی قدیمی ترین نسخه این دیوان در سال 1088 یعنی بیش از 650 سال بعد از ابن باكویه نوشته شده و فعلاً در موزه بریتانیا است. اولین مرتبه مرحوم رضاقلی خان هدایت در ریاض العارفین كه در سال 1260 تألیف شده ذكری از باباكوهی شاعر كرده و الا تذكره نویسان سابق هیچكدام نه از او یاد كرده اند و نه ابن باكویه را صاحب قریحه شاعری می دانسته اند. به هر حال باباكوهی شاعر صوفی غیر از ابن باكویه است و عبدالله محمدبن باكویه یا باباكوهی كه مردم شیراز او را از قرن پنجم می شناسند وعرفا او را از اولیاء و مردان بزرگ می دانند آن پیر مرادی است كه در سال 440 برفراز كوه صبوی شیراز به خواب ابدی فرو رفته است و از آن روزگار تا به امروز مردم اغلب تحمل رنج راه و صعود از كوه را در گرما و سرما كرده و به آرامگاه او می روند و بر مزار آن پیر طریقت غزل های عارفانه و عاشقانه وارستگانی چون حافظ و سعدی و مولوی می خوانند و از ارواح پاك آن مردان از دنیا گذشته و به عقبی پیوسته مدد می جویند.
سعدی در باب پنجم بوستان در ضمن اشعاری اشاره به باباكوهی (باكویه) كرده كه مرحوم علامه قزوینی در حاشیه شدالازار آن را نقل كرده است، اینك آن را برای مزید اطلاع خوانندگان نقل می كنیم:
 

به مردی كه ناموس را شب نخفت

ندانی كه بابای كوهی چه گفت

كه نتوانی از خلق بربست هیچ

برو جان بابا در اخلاص پیچ

هنوز از تو نقش برون دیده اند

كسانی كه فعلت پسندیده اند

كه زیر قبا دارد اندام پیس

چه قدر آورد بنده حور دیس

كه بازت رود چادر از روی زشت

نشاید به دستان شدن در بهشت

پس از وفات باكویه مدفن او غزلتگاه بعضی از وارستگان و گوشه نشینان گردیده و در چندقدمی دامنه آن در اثر وجود چشمه گوارایی درختان سرو و چنار صفا و طراوتی به آنجا می دهد.





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جمعه 20 دی 1398 03:48 ب.ظ
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چهارشنبه 18 دی 1398 10:30 ب.ظ
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May give the envelope to the officiant earlier than the ceremony.

In the course of the ceremony, he - is just not a part of the processional but
enters with the groom, standing behind the groom and slightly to the left.
After the ceremony, he - immediately serves as one of the witnesses in signing the marriage license.
At the reception, he - doesn't stand in the receiving
line unless he can also be the father of the groom.
After the reception, he - promptly returns both
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Responsibilities of the very best Man Before the marriage,
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May give the envelope to the officiant earlier than the ceremony.
Through the ceremony, he - is not part of the processional however enters with the groom, standing behind the groom and slightly to the left.
After the ceremony, he - instantly serves as one of
the witnesses in signing the wedding license.

At the reception, he - doesn't stand within the receiving
line until he can also be the father of the groom.
After the reception, he - promptly returns both his and the grooms rented
formal wear to the suitable location.
پنجشنبه 28 آذر 1398 02:33 ب.ظ
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Throughout the ceremony, he - is not part of the
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On the reception, he - doesn't stand in the receiving
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تاریخ ادبیات شیراز - زندگی نامه باباکوهی
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